DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20213936

Histomorphology of germ cell tumors at various anatomic sites: a 5 years study at a tertiary care centre

Manal A. Lateef, M. I. Lone

Abstract


Background: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which occur in the gonads, and at extra gonadal sites of the body. The aim of the study was to observe the different histopathological patterns of various GCTs in the body at all possible sites and to know their IHC staining patterns.

Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 5 years from 2015 to 2019 and was an observational study. The recorded data was compiled and entered in a spreadsheet and then exported to data editor of SPSS Version 20.0. Continuous variables were expressed as mean SD and categorical variables were summarized as frequencies and percentages. Graphically the data was presented by bar and pie diagrams Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was applied for comparing categorical values. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. All p values were 2 tailed.

Results: A total of 93 cases were analyzed and the mean age of the patients was 27.8 years. Mature cystic teratoma was the most common histopathological variant and was mostly seen in the ovaries. There was a difference in age predilection of benign and malignant tumors. Most of the malignant GCTs were gonadal while EGCTs were likely to be benign. MGCTs (mixed GCTs) were mostly testicular in origin with only one MGCT being extragonadal.

Conclusions: Mature cystic teratomas were the most frequent GCTs with frequent site being in ovaries. Out 0f 18 EGCTs only 2 were malignant, rest all were mature cystic teratomas.

 


Keywords


GCTs, Extragonadal GCTs, MGCTs, Teratoma

Full Text:

PDF

References


Jacobsen GK, Barlebo H, Olsen J, Schultz HP, Starklint H, Sogaard H et al. Testicular germ cell tumors in Denmark 1976-1980. Pathology of 1058 consecutive cases. Acta Radiol Oncol. 1984;23:239-47.

Katsube Y, Berg JW, Silverberg SG. Epidemiologic pathology of ovarian tumors: a histopathologic review of primary ovarian neoplasms diagnosed in the Denver standard metropolitan statistical area. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1982;1:3-16.

Koonings PP, Campbell K, Mishell Jr DR. Relative frequency of primary ovarian neoplasms: a 10-year review. Obstet Gynecol. 1989;74:921-6.

Shivdasani RA, Kantoff PW. Extragonadal germ cell tumors. In Raghavan D, Scher HI, Leibel SA, Lange PH (ed.): Principles and Practice of Genitourinary Oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Raven. 1997;751-64.

Zeeman AM, Stoop H, Boter M. VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells. Lab Invest. 2002;82:159-66.

Norris HJ, Jensen RD. Relative frequency of ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. Cancer. 1972;30:713-9.

Jha R, Karki S. Histological pattern of ovarian tumors and their age distribution. Nepal Med Coll J. 2008;10:81-5.

Arora RS, Alston RD, Eden TO, Geraci M, Birch JM. Comparative incidence patterns and trends of gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in England, 1979 to 2003. Cancer. 2012;118(17):4290-97.

Shrestha MK, Lalchan S. Adrenal gland teratoma in a 40-year-old woman. Nepal Med College J. 2010;12(3):201-2.

Lam KY, Lo CY. Teratoma in the region of adrenal gland: A unique entity masquerading as lipomatous adrenal tumor. Surgery. 1999;126:90-94.

Hui JPK, Luk WH, Siu CW. Teratoma in the region of adrenal gland in a 77- year-old man. J Hong Kong Coll Radiol 2004; 7: 206-09. Cox JD. Primary malignant germinal tumors of the mediastinum: a study of 24 cases. Cancer. 1975;36:1162-8.

Cox JD. Primary malignant germinal tumors of the mediastinum: a study of 24 cases. Cancer. 1975;36:1162-8.

Shivdasani RA, Kantoff PW. Extragonadal germ cell tumors. In Raghavan D, Scher HI, Leibel SA, Lange PH (ed.): Principles and Practice of Genitourinary Oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Raven. 1997;751-64.

Wychulis AR, Payne WS, Clagget OT, Woolner LB. Surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors: a 40-year experiences. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1971;62:379-92.

Altman RP, Randolph JG. Sacro-cocygeal teratomas: America Academy of Pediatric Surgical Section survey. J Pediatr Surg. 1974;9:389-406.

Gross RE, Clatworthy HW, Meeker IA. Sacrococcygeal teratoma in infants and children- A report of 40 cases. Surg Gyn Obstet. 1951;92:341-54.

Keramedas DC, Voyatziz NG. Retroperitoneal teratoma. J Paediatr Surg. 1972;7:434-9.

Goss PE, Schwertfeger L, Blackstein ME et al. Extragonadal germ cell tumors-a 14-year Toronto experience. Cancer. 1994;73:1971-9.

Abell MR, Fayes JV, Lampe I. Retroperitoneal germinomas (seminomas) without evidence of testicular involvement. Cancer. 1965;18:273.

Conklin J, Abell MR. Germ cell neoplasms of sacrococcygeal region. Cancer. 1967;20:2105.

Gooneratne S, Keh P, Sreekanth S, Recant W, Talerman A. Anterior mediastinal endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor in a female infant. Cancer. 1985;56:1430-33.

Kiffer JD, Sandeman TF. Primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors. A study of eleven cases and review of the literature. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1989;17:835-84.

Dulmet EM, Macchiarini P, Suc B, Verley JM. Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. A 30‐year experience. Cancer. 1993;72:1894-901.

Takeda SI, Miyoshi S, Ohta M, Minami M, Masaoka A, Matsuda H. Primary germ cell tumors in the mediastinum. Cancer. 2003;97:367-76.

Von Hochstetter AR, Hedinger CE. The differential diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors in theory and practice: a critical analysis of two major systems of classification and review of 389 cases. Virchows Arch. 1982;396:247-77.

Scully RE, Young RH, Clement PB. Tumors of the Ovary, Maldeveloped Gonads, Fallopian Tube and Broad Ligament. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Fascicle, Third Series. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology: Washington, DC. 1998;23.

Beniwal AS, Vyas SP, Choudhary K, Sharma S. Retrospective histopathological study of germ cell tumors of ovary at a tertiary care centre of western Rajasthan. Indian J Basic App Med Res. 2018;8(1):490-7.

Gobel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G. Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups. Ann Oncol. 2000;11:263-71.

Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Von Schweinitz D. Age-dependent presentation and clinical course of 1465 patients aged 0 to less than 18 years with ovarian or testicular germ cell tumors; Data of the MAKEI 96 protocol revisited in the light of prenatal. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(3):611.

Knapp R, Hurt R, Payen W. Malignant germ cell tumors of mediastinum. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1985;89:82-9.

Al-Arfaj AA, Chir AF, El-Shawarby MA, Al-Mulhim FA, Lardhi AA. Mesenteric cystic teratoma in children. Saudi Med J. 2003;24(12):1388-90.