DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20221173

Weight loss methods and diet history among bariatric surgery candidates

Lizbeth Guilbert Vertiz, César Manuel Vargas Sahagún, Elisa Maria Sepúlveda Guerrero, Carmen Georgina Castelán Licona, Sergio Ulises Pérez Escobedo, Carlos Zerrweck

Abstract


Background: Nowadays there are multiple conservative treatments, medical and alternative for weight loss, with high failure levels in patients with obesity. The history of variability, effectiveness, and diversity of such treatments has been poorly explored in candidates to bariatric surgery, particularly in Latin America, where high rates of overweight and obesity are found.

Methods: Cross-sectional study in a single center, where a questionnaire was given to all patients who presented for bariatric surgery evaluation. The primary objective was to identify the dietary history and methods used for weight loss in patients with obesity, focusing in the diet type/method, length, effectiveness, and weight regain. Also, a basal anthropometric/demographic analysis, and type of method used (diet, medications, homeopathy, supplements, and alternative therapies) was performed.

Results: 400 questionnaires were evaluated, from which the average age was 40.2 years, 79.5% representing female sex, and an average weight of 114.8 kg. Childhood obesity was reported in 38%. 64.5% used among 1-5 methods to lose weight historically, but 74.7% never associated physical activity. Supervised diet (with and without medication) was the most effective method (44% of cases used medication); however, they were discontinued in 50.5% due to adverse effects.

Conclusions: The use of a diet or alternative treatments, with or without medications, have shown poor weight loss and minimum durability. The use of medication is very common, but most people discontinue their use due to adverse effects events.


Keywords


Obesity, Diet, Bariatric surgery, Weight loss methods

Full Text:

PDF

References


Tremmel M, Gerdtham UG, Nilsson PM, Saha S. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(4).

Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DC. Long-term pharmacotherapy for overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(12):1437-46.

Moreno B, Bellido D, Sajoux I, Goday A, Saavedra D, Crujeiras AB, et al. Comparison of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet with a standard low-calorie diet in the treatment of obesity. Endocrine. 2014;47(3):793-805.

Cannon CP, Kumar A. Treatment of overweight and obesity: lifestyle, pharmacologic, and surgical options. Clin Cornerstone. 2009;9(4):55-68.

Strychar I. Diet in the management of weight loss. CMAJ. 2006;174(1):56-63.

Makris A, Foster GD. Dietary approaches to the treatment of obesity. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2011;34(4):813-27.

Huizinga MM. Weight-Loss Pharmacotherapy: A Brief Review. Clinical Diabetes. 2007;25(4):135-40.

Halford JC, Boyland EJ, Blundell JE, Kirkham TC, Harrold JA. Pharmacological management of appetite expression in obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010;6(5):255-69.

Witkamp RF. Current and future drug targets in weight management. Pharm Res. 2011;28(8):1792-818.

Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DC. Long-term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;3:CD004094.

Li Z, Maglione M, Tu W, Mojica W, Arterburn D, Shugarman LR, et al. Meta- analysis: pharmacologic treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(7):532-46.

Lacey JM, Tershakovec AM, Foster GD. Acupuncture for the treatment of obesity: a review of the evidence. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(4):419-27.

Hsu CH, Hwang KC, Chao CL, Lin JG, Kao ST, Chou P. Effects of electroacupuncture in reducing weight and waist circumference in obese women: a randomized crossover trial. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29(11):1379-84.

Gao Z, Yu Z, Song ZX, Zhang CR, Wang YS, Wu YF, et al. Comparative effectiveness of electro-acupuncture plus lifestyle modification treatment for patients with simple obesity and overweight: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015;16:525.

Esteghamati A, Mazaheri T, Vahidi Rad M, Noshad S. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of obesity: a critical review. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2015;13(2):e19678.

Nguyen NT, Varela JE. Bariatric surgery for obesity and metabolic disorders: state of the art. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14(3):160-9.

Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Ard JD, Comuzzie AG, Donato KA, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25):2985-3023.

Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, Safford M, Knowler WC, Bertoni AG, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1481-6.

Hoskin MA, Bray GA, Hattaway K, Khare-Ranade PA, Pomeroy J, Semler LN, et al. Prevention of Diabetes Through the Lifestyle Intervention: Lessons Learned from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Outcomes Study and its Translation to Practice. Curr Nutr Rep. 2014;3(4):364-78.

Pi-Sunyer X. The Look AHEAD Trial: A Review and Discussion Of Its Outcomes. Curr Nutr Rep. 2014;3(4):387-91.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005;293(1):43-53.

Hyson DA. A review and critical analysis of the scientific literature related to 100% fruit juice and human health. Adv Nutr. 2015;6(1):37-51.

Clemens R, Drewnowski A, Ferruzzi MG, Toner CD, Welland D. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice. Adv Nutr. 2015;6(2):236-43.

Christensen P, Bliddal H, Riecke BF, Leeds AR, Astrup A, Christensen R. Comparison of a low-energy diet and a very low-energy diet in sedentary obese individuals: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Clin Obes. 2011;1(1):31-40.

Krotkiewski M. Thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;440(2-3):85-98.

James WP, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal LF, Maggioni AP, et al. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(10):905-17.

Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Long-term drug treatment for obesity: a systematic and clinical review. JAMA. 2014;311(1):74-86.

Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, Garber AJ, Hurley DL, Jastreboff AM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Comprehensive Clinical Practice Guidelines for Medical Care of Patients with Obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016;22 Suppl 3:1-203.

Pillitteri JL, Shiffman S, Rohay JM, Harkins AM, Burton SL, Wadden TA. Use of Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss in the United States: Results of a National Survey. Obesity. 2008;16(4):790-6.

Sun NN, Wu TY, Chau CF. Natural Dietary and Herbal Products in Anti- Obesity Treatment. Molecules. 2016;21(10).

Elinav E, Pinsker G, Safadi R, Pappo O, Bromberg M, Anis E, et al. Association between consumption of Herbalife nutritional supplements and acute hepatotoxicity. J Hepatol. 2007;47(4):514-20.

Ignarro L, Heber D, Henig YS, Bejar E. Herbalife nutritional products and liver injury revisited. J Hepatol. 2008;49(2):291-3.

Fang S, Wang M, Zheng Y, Zhou S, Ji G. Acupuncture and Lifestyle Modification Treatment for Obesity: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45(2):239-54.

Firouzjaei A, Li GC, Wang N, Liu WX, Zhu BM. Comparative evaluation of the therapeutic effect of metformin monotherapy with metformin and acupuncture combined therapy on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. Nutr Diabetes. 2016;6:e209