DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20150258

Prevalence of Giardiasis among children in childcare centers in Kermanshah, Iran

Reza Faraji, Fereshte Ahmadian, Gholam Reza Javadi, Parisa Mohamadi Barshahi

Abstract


Background: Giardia is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite which occurs in of both humans and animals. The aim of this study is determining the prevalence rate of Giardiasis in children, Kermanshah childcare centers (2012).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 632 children (330 were female and 302 were male) with an average of 0-6 years in children, Kermanshah childcare centers (2012). Three stool samples were obtained on three consecutive days and were tested for the detection of trophozoites, and/or cysts, using both direct laboratory methods and Formalin-Ether concentration. Informations were collected by a questionnaire.

Results: Of the 632 cases in this study, the prevalence rate of gut parasite infection was 169 (26.74%), so that Giardia lamblia with 13.93%, Entamoeba histolyticawith 3.48%, and Entamoeba coli with 2.53 were the most predominant isolate. The prevalence rate ranged in rural residents (15.67%) was more than urban residents (11.07%). The age group 4-6 years had the highest rate (14.24%) and 0-2 years the lowest (1.74%); boys with 16.29% had a higher rate than girls (10.45%). Parasitic infection was more prevalent in children whose parents had no high education (17.25). The maximum percentage of infections was in August with 5.86%.

Conclusion: With attention to the above findings, it seems that in order to decrease, control and prevent of parasitic infection we should have the necessary public education to teachers and parents of children.

 


Keywords


Intestinal disease, Giardia Lamblia, Children

Full Text:

PDF

References


Heidari A, Rokni MB. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among children in day-care centers in Damghan - Iran. Iranian J Publ Health. 2003;32(1):31-4.

Lara F, Carolina M. Giardiosis in children. BMC Public health 2002;2(1):5-11.

Al-Saeed AT, Issa SH. Frequency of Giardia lamblia among children in Dohuk, northern Iraq. EMHJ. 2006;12(5):555-61.

Gillin FD, Reiner DS. Cell biology of the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia. Ann Rev Microbiol. 1996;50:679-705.

Thompson RCA. The future impact of societal and cultural factors on parasitic disease some emerging issues. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:949-59.

Pereira MDGC, Atwill ER, Barbosa AP. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiania, Goias state, Brazil. Rev Inst Med trop S Paulo. 2007;49(3):139-145.

Sayyari AA, Imanzadeh F, Bagheri Yazdi SA, Karami H, Yaghoobi M. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Islamic Republic of Iran. EMHJ. 2005;11(3):377-83.

Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Hogg GG, Fairley CK. Prevalence of enteric pathogens among community based asymptomatic individuals. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;15(3):290-3.

Norhayati M, Penggabean M, Oothuman P, Fatmah MS. Prevalence and some risk factors of Giardia duodenalis infection in a rural community in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998;29:735-8.

Anuar TS, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, Moktar N. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis among orang asli in Malaysia: application of the triosephosphate isomerase gene. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014;14:78.

Adam RDA. The Giardia lamblia genome. Int J Parasitol. 2001;30:475-84.

Adam RDA. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:447-75.

Addiss DG, Mathews HM, Stewart JM, et al. Evaluation of a commerc¬ially available enzyme-linked immunos¬sorbent assay for Giardia lamblia antigen in stool. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29(6):1137-42.

Thompson RCA, Lymbery AJ, Meloni BP. Genetic variation in Giardia, Kunstler 1882: taxonomic and epidemiological significance. Protozoological Abstracts. 1990;14:1-28.

Yakoob J, Jafri W, Abid Sh, et al. Giardiasis in patients with dyspeptic symptoms. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(42):6667-0.

Upcroft P, Upcroft JA. Drug targets and mechanisms of resistance in the anaerobic protozoa. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:150-64.

Shojaei Arani A, Alahehbandan R, Akhlahi L, Shahi M, Rastegar Lari A. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population south of Tehran, Iran. Rev Inst Med trop S Paulo. 2008;50(3):145-9.

Amizadeh Z, Tarami M, Gachkar L. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and related factors in primary school children in Varamin. J Compr Ped. 2007; 1(2):55-8.

Naser ZA, Jafar M. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the city of Kerman. Iran J Parasitol. 1997;11:129a.

Koroosh MN. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations in patients attending the parasitology laboratory in Shahrekord. Iran J Parasitol. 1997;11:131a.

Yadav P, Tak V, Mirdha BR, Makharia GK. Refractory giardiasis: A molecular appraisal from a tertiary care centre in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32(4):378-382.

Casemore DP, Armstrong M, Sands RL. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. J Clin Pathol 1985; 38:1337-14.

Nasiri V, Esmailnia K, Karimi Gh, Nasiri M, Akhavan O. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj city, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47(3):265-8.

Baruch AC. Issac-Renton JND, Adam RD. Epidemiology of Giardia lamblia. Jou Infe Dis. 1996;174:137-9.

Mendoza D, Nunez FA, Escobedo A, et al. Intestinal parasitic infections in 4 child day-care centes located in san Miguel Pardon municipality, Havanan city. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2001;53(3):189-93.

Newman RD, Moore SR, Lima AM, Nataro JP, Guerrant RL, Sears CL. A longitudinal study of Giardia lamblia infection in north-east Brazilian children. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6(8):624-34.

AL-Zain B, AL-Hindi A. Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in household in Beit-lahia city, Gaza Strip, Palestine. Ann Alquds Med. 2005;1:48-52.

Quihui L, Valencia ME, Crompton DW, et al. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren. BMC Publ Health. 2006;6:225.

Hooshyar H, Bagherian T, Baghbani F. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients referred to Kashan reference laboratory in 2007-2011. Jundishapur J Health Sci. 2013;5(1):17-22.

Bolbol AH, Mahmoud AA. Laboratory and clinical study of intestinal pathogenic parasites among the Riyadh population. Saudi Med J. 1984;5:159-66.

Dieng Y. Les parasitoses intestin¬nales chez des habitant's d’une zone peri-urbaine a nappe phreatique polluee par les nitrates d’origine fecale (Yeumbeul, Senegal) [Intestinal parasitosis in the inhabitants of a suburban zone in which the groundwater is polluted by nitrates of fecal origin (Yeumbeul, Senegal)]. Sante. 1999;9(6):351-6.

Mercado R, Otto JP, Perez M. Variac¬cion estacional de las infecciones por protozoos intestinales en pacientes amb¬bulatorios del sector norte de Santiago, Chile, 1995-1996 [Seasonal variation of intestinal protozoa infection in outpatients of the north section of Santiago, Chile, 1995–1996]. Boletin chileno de parasitol¬logia. 1999;54(1-2):41-4.

Machado RC, Maraci E. Giardiosis and helminthiasis in children of both public and private day-care centers in the city of Mitassol, Saopaulo state. Brazil Rev Sec Bras Med Trop. 1999;32(6):697-704.

Asmar M. Prevalence of intestinal parasite in primary school children in Mazandaran. Iran J Infec Dis. 2000;9:53-9.

Meyer EA, Radulescu S. Giardia and giar¬rdiasis. Adv Parasitol. 1979;17:47-1.