Horseshoe kidney: a case report

Naveena S, Mrudula C


The horseshoe kidney was originally regarded as a rare anatomical curiosity, but with the aid of retrograde pyelogram, intravenous urogram and renal arteriograms in this present age of diagnosis, the incidence of horseshoe kidney is estimated at 1 in 200-400 individuals or 1 in 700 autopsies and usually remains asymptomatic. The present report is concerned with a case of horseshoe kidney, which was observed during routine cadaveric dissection, for student education in anatomy dissection hall of Osmania medical college, in a male cadaver. The kidneys formed a U-shaped structure as a result of fusion at the inferior poles of the original kidneys by a parenchymatous isthmus. As a whole, the structure presented a typical horseshoe shape. The location of the kidney was lower than that of the normal kidney. The renal arterial system was almost normal except for a surplus artery into the isthmus that directly originated from the aorta, at the origin of inferior mesenteric artery. Venous drainage of both the kidneys and the isthmus was through two veins which opened independently into the inferior vena cava. The hila on both sides opened towards the ventral direction, and the ureters descended in front of the isthmus and entered the bladder normally. This report is being made because it affords material for a review of embryological and gross anatomy findings in a case of horseshoe kidney, which could help in a thorough urologic evaluation in diagnosed cases prior to any surgical intervention.


Horse shoe kidney, Retrograde pyelogram, Intravenous urogram, Renal arteriogram, Parenchymatous isthmus, Surplus artery, Renal blastema, Prostatectomy, Hydronephrosis, Pyelonephritis

Full Text:



Successful transureteropyelostomy after heminephrectomy of a bilateral hydronephrotic horseshoe kidney: a case report Holger Gerullis, Christoph Eimer, Dietmar Betz and Thomas Otto. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2008, 2:231; doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-231.

Morphometric study of a horseshoe kidney. Oktem H, Gozil R, Calguner E, Bahcelioglu M, Mutlu S, Kurkcuoglu A, Yucel D, Senol E, Babus T, Kadioglu D.Med Princ Pract. 2008;17(1):80-3.PMID:18059107.

Yakeishi A, Saga T, So H, Tetsuka M, Araki Y, Kobayashi S, Yamaki K. A case of horseshoe kidney with surplus renal arteries. Kurume Med J. 2007;54(3-4):89-93.

Madhur Gupta, Ajay Kumar Pandey and Neeru Goyal. Horseshoe kidney – A case report. Nepal Medical College Journal 2007; 9(1).

Bordei P, Antohe DS, Iliescu D, Sapte E. Horseshoe kidney in an ectopic position. A case report. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003 Jul-Aug;25(3-4):345-9.

Chen H, Hayakawa D, Emura S, Ozawa Y, Yano R, Shoumura S. Okajimas. A case of the horseshoe kidney. Folia Anat Jpn 2001 Dec;78(5):169-72.

Shoumura S, Emura S, Utsumi M, Chen H, Hayakawa D, Yamahira T, Tamada A, Terasawa K, Aoki T, Sato K, et al. Two cases of the horseshoe kidney. Kaibogaku Zasshi 1992 Jun;67(3):226-9.

Horseshoe Kidneys [Abridged] F. R. Kilpatrick Proc R Soc Med. 1967 May; 60(5): 433–438. PMCID: PMC1901808

Report of a Case of Horseshoe Kidney L. K. Emenhiser, M.D., J. C. King, M.D. Oklahoma City, Okla April 1936 Radiology, 26, 495-496. doi: 10.1148/26.4.495 .

Daniel N. Eisendrath, Frank M. Phifer, and Harry B. Horseshoe kidney. Culver Ann Surg. 1925 November; 82(5):735-64.