A cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Girish I., Vijeth S. B., Nandini H. V.


Background: Microalbuminuria is an earliest marker of overt diabetic nephropathy, hence monitoring microalbuminuria in patients with diabetes mellites helps to predict and prevent overt diabetic nephropathy. This cross-sectional study was done to find out the prevalence of microalbuminuria in 200 patients with diabetes mellitus attending medicine OPD of Basaweshwara medical college hospital (BMCH), Chitradurga.

Methods: 200 patients with Diabetes mellitus visiting the medicine OPD of BMCH, Chitradurga were considered for the study. Patients history and physical examination findings like duration of diabetes, hypertension, smoking and BMI were considered. Relevant blood investigations like fasting blood sugar, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum cholesterol and creatinine were done. Microalbuminuria was assessed using dipstick kits in an early morning urine samples.

Results: The prevalence of normoalbuminuria was 71% and microalbuminuria was 29%. The prevalence of microalbuminuria increased with the increase in duration of diabetes.

Conclusions: Prevalence of microalbuminuria among the patients with diabetes depends upon risk factors like blood pressure control, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar and HbA1c. Early identification of high risk patients and the subsequent initiation of renal and cardiovascular protective agents helps to reduce the burden of diabetic kidney disease.



Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, HbA1c, Microalbuminuria

Full Text:



Defronzo RA. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Rev. 1997;5:177.

King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes care. 1998;21(9):1414-31.

Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Latha E, Vijay V, Viswanathan M. Rising prevalence of NIDDM in an urban population in India. Diabetologia. 1997;40(2):232-7.

Shapo L, McKee M, Coker R, Ylli A. Type 2 diabetes in Tirana City, Albania: a rapid increase in a country in transition. Diabetic medicine. 2004;21(1):77-83.

Atlas ID. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2011. International Diabetes Federation. 2012. Available at:

Neil A, Hawkins M, Potok M, Thorogood M, Cohen D, Mann J. A prospective population-based study of microalbuminuria as a predictor of mortality in NIDDM. Diabetes care. 1993;16(7):996-1003.

Collins VR, Dowse GK, Finch CF, Zimmet PZ, Linnane AW. Prevalence and risk factors for micro-and macroalbuminuria in diabetic subjects and entire population of Nauru. Diabetes. 1989;38(12):1602-10.

Gupta DK, Verma LK, Khosla PK, Dash SC. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in diabetes: a study from north India. Diabetes Research and clinical practice. 1991;12(2):125-8.

Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in older-onset-diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1993;16:1325-9.

Allawi J, Rao PV, Gilbert R, Scott G, Jarrett RJ, Keen H, et al. Microalbuminuria in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: its prevalence in Indian compared with Europid patients. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988;296(6620):462-4.

Amos A, McCarty D, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: Estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med. 1997;14:S1-85.

Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature. 2001;414:782-7.

Ritz E, Rychlik I, Locatelli F, Halimi S. End-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes: a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;34:795-808.

Ritz E, Orth SR. Nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1127- 33.

Vijay V, Snehalatha C, Ramachandran A, Viswanathan M. The prevalence of proteinuria in non-insulin dependent diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India. 1994;42:792-4.

Gupta DK, Verma LK, Khosla PK, Dash SC. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in diabetes: a study from north India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991;12:125-8.

Huraib S, Abu-Aisha H, Sulimani RA, Famuyiwa FO, Al-Wakeel J, Askar A, et al. The pattern of diabetic nephropathy among Saudi patients with NIDDM. Ann Saudi Med. 1995;15:120-4.

Gatling W, Knight C, Mullee MA, Hill RD. Microalbuminuria in diabetes: a population study of the prevalence and an assessment of three screening tests. Diabet Med. 1988;5:343-7.

Marshall SM, Alberti KGMM. Comparison of the prevalence and associated features of abnormal albumin excretion in insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Q J Med. 1989;70:61-71.

HaVner SM, Morales PA, Gruber MK, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Cardiovascular risk factors in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993;13:205-10.

John L, Rao PS, Kanagasabapathy AS. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in non-insulin dependent diabetes. Ind J Med Res. 1991;94:24-9.

Varghese A, Deepa R, Rema M, Mohan V. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a diabetes center in Southern India. Postgrad Med J. 2001;77:399-402.