DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20184914

Study of price variations of anti-epileptic drugs available in different brands in Indian pharmaceutical market

Purnendu Arya, Ratan Kumar, Akash Chandra, Lalit Mohan

Abstract


Background: To analyze the cost ratio and percentage cost variations in different brands of the commonly prescribed anti-epileptic drugs available in Indian pharmaceutical market.

Methods: The maximum and minimum price of each brand of the drug given in INR was noted by using CIMS January to April 2018 edition and drug today April to June 2018 Vol-1. The cost ratio and the percentage cost variation for individual drug brands was calculated. The cost of one bottle in case of 100ml syrup and 10 tablets/capsules was calculated in case of oral drugs and the cost of one 1 vial or ampoule was noted in case of injectable drugs. At last the cost ratio and percentage cost variation of various brands was compared.

Results: After calculation of cost ratio and percentage cost variation for each brand of anti-epileptic drug tablet clonazepam (2mg) shows highest cost ratio and percentage cost variation as: 10.41 and 941.66, carbamazepine (200mg SR tablet) shows lowest cost ratio and percentage cost variation as: 1.09 and 9.32.

Conclusions: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder and Epileptic drugs are to be prescribed for prolonged period. If a costly brand is prescribed, the patients have to pay more money unnecessarily for their treatment. There is a wide difference in the cost of different brands of anti-epileptic drugs available in India. The clinicians prescribing these drugs should be aware of these variations in cost to reduce the cost of drug therapy.


Keywords


Anti-Epileptic drugs, Cost ratio, Percentage cost variation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chang BS, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1257-66.

WHO. Epilepsy Fact sheet. February 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/epilepsy. Accessed 4 March 2016.

Longo DL. 369 Seizures and Epilepsy. Harrison's principles of internal medicine (18th ed.). McGraw-Hill. 2012:3258.

Fisher R, van Emde Boas W, Blume W, Elger C, Genton P, Lee P, Engel J. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia. 2005;46(4):470-2.

Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet. 2016 Oct 8;388(10053):1545-602.

Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, et al. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The lancet. 2016 Oct 8;388(10053):1459-544.

Browne TR, Holmes GL. Handbook of epilepsy. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;2008:288. Accessed 29 May 2016.

Wyllie E. Wyllie's treatment of epilepsy: principles and practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;2010. Accessed 24 June 2016.

Newton CR, Garcia HH. Epilepsy in poor regions of the world. The Lancet. 2012 Sep 29;380(9848):1193-201.

National Clinical Guideline Centre. The epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2012. Accessed 16 December 2013.

National Clinical Guideline Centre. The epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Accessed 16 December 2013.

Wyllie E. Wyllie's treatment of epilepsy: principles and practice. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;2012:187.

National Clinical Guideline Centre. The epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Accessed 16 December 2013.

Nevitt SJ, Marson AG, Weston J, Smith CT. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic‐clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016(4).

Powell G, Saunders M, Rigby A, Marson AG. Immediate‐release versus controlled‐release carbamazepine in the treatment of epilepsy. The Cochrane Library. 2016 Jan 1.

Eaddy MT, Cook CL, O’Day K, Burch SP, Cantrell CR. How patients cost-sharing trends affects adherence and out comes: a literature review. PT. 2012;37:45-55.

Thomas M. Rational drug use and essential drug concept. In: Parthasarthi G, Nyfort Hasen K, Editors. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacy Practice. 1st ed. Himayatnagar, Hyderabad: Orient Longman;2004:723.

Rataboli PV, Garg A. Confusing brand names: nightmare of medical profession. J Postgrad Med. 2005;51:13-6.

Drug Cost Control, Government of India; Order, 2013. Available at: http://www.nppaindia.nic.in/DPCO2013. pdf.

Vieira JL, Portal VL, Moriguchi EH. How much do we pay for a benefit? A descriptive cost analysis of the use of statins. The need for a national cost-effectiveness analysis. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2001;76(5):409-18

Kumar L, Dinkar JK, Mohan L, Dikshit H. Costvariation analysis of antimalarial drugs available in India. Int J Rese in Med Sci. 2017;5(9):4051-4.