DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20200752

Fertility knowledge, care seeking behavioral pattern and attitudes of infertile men in Lagos, Nigeria

Christian A. Enwuru, Bamidele Iwalokun, Veronica N. Enwuru, Chinedum T. Oparaugo, Oliver Ezechi, Afolabi Oluwadun

Abstract


Background: The objective was to study the extent of infertility knowledge, attitude and care seeking behavioral pattern of infertile men in Lagos.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out using questionnaire between 2009 and 2014. Adult males who were clinically infertile, visiting the clinics for the first time and consented were studied. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis.

Results: Only 226 men, mean age 38±5.8 years participated. Up to 20.8% had sired a child for between >1 but <2, 20.4% for 2-5 and 58.8% for ≥6 years. Couples had coitus for once and >3 times (mean coitus 2.3±0.9 times) weekly. Only 11.1% knew about male-female factor infertility. Up to 42.9% knew about fertility and the sign of female ovulation and 38.1% correctly defined clinical infertility. Up to 40.3% switched treatment for competency of the new places and exorbitant price by 22.1%. Sixty-six (29.2%) made the first visit to a proper care place within a period >1 but <2 years, 45.1% within 2-3 years and 25.7% waited for >3 years. Majority (50 %) sought to know the causes of infertility, 14.6% how to improve fertility and 6.6% the reality of male infertility.

Conclusions: Majority of the participants sought inappropriate help and delayed in seeking appropriate care. Poor collaboration and referral system observed. There is need for edification of both care providers and seekers to be ethical in their actions. Infertility care cost intervention is needed.


Keywords


Male infertility, Nigeria, Seeking for care and lagos

Full Text:

PDF

References


Emokpae MA, Mohammed AZ, Omale IA. Hormonal abnormalities in azoospermic men in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Indian J Med Res. 2006;124:299-304.

Hamada A, Esteves SC, Mark Nizza M, Agarwal A. Unexplained Male infertility: diagnosis and management. Int Braz J Urol. 2012;38:576-94.

Agarwal A, Mulgund A, Hamada A, Chyatte MR. A unique view on male infertility around the globe Reproductive. Biol Endocri. 2015;13:37.

Alemnji A, Thomas KD. Socio-biological status of Nigerian males with primary and secondary infertility. East Afri Med J. 1997;74(8):519-22.

Imade GE, Towobola OA, Sagay AS, Otubu JA. Sexually transmitted diseases and medico-social factors associated with male infertility in Nigeria. Arch AIDS Res. 1993;7(3-4):245-52.

Okonofua FE, Harris D, Odebiyi A, Kane T, Snow RC. The social meaning of infertility in South West Nigeria. Health Transition Rev. 1997;1(2):205-20.

Okonofua F, Menakay U, Onemu SO, Omo ALO, Bergstrom S. A case-control study of risk factors of male infertility in Nigeria. Asia J Androl. 2005;(4):351-61.

Onemu SO, Ibeh IN. Studied on the significance of positive bacterial semen cultures in male fertility in Nigeria. J Fertil Woman Med. 2001;46(4):210-4.

Uadia PO, Emokpae AM. Male infertility in Nigeria: a neglected reproductive health issue requiring attention. J Basic Clin Repro Sci. 2015;4(2):45-53.

Dyer SJ, Abraham N, Mokoena NE, Spuy ZM. Thou are a man because you have children: experiences reproductive health knowledge and treatment-seeking behavior among men suffering from couple infertility in South Africa. Human Repro. 2004;9:960-7.

Ikechebelu JI, Adinma JI, Orie EF, Ikegwuonu SO. High prevalence of male infertility in South Eastern Nigeria. J Obstetrics Gynaecol. 2002;23(6):657-9.

Umeora OUJ, Ejikeme BN, Adeoye SI, Umeor MC. Socio-cultural impediments to male factor infertility evaluation in rural South-East Nigeria. J Obstetrics Gynecol. 2008;28(3):323-6.

Leonard L. Looking for children: the search for fertility among the Sara of Southern Chad. Med Anthropol. 2002;(21):79-112.

Sundby J. Infertility in the Gambia: traditional and modern healthcare. Patient Edu Coun. 1997;31(1):29-37.

Ajayi RA, Parsons JH, Bolton VN. Live birth after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in the management of oligospermic and azoospermia in Nigeria. Afr J Repro Health. 2005;7:121-4.

Audu BM. Sexual dysfunction among infertile Nigerian women. J Obstetrics Gynecol. 2005;22:655-7.

Seybold D. Choosing therapies: a Senegalese women’s experience with infertility. Health Care Women Int. 2002;23:540-9.

Olusanya O, Okpere EE, Ezimokhai M. The importance of social class in voluntary fertility control in a developing country. West Afr J Med. 1985;4:252-5.

Jungwirth A, Diemer T, Dohle GR, Giwercman A, Kopa Z, Tournaye H, et al. Guidelines on male infertility - an updates. Euro Asso Urol. 2013;1:60.

Jeje EA, Alabia TO, Ojewolaa RW, Ogunjimia MA Osunkoyaba SA. Male infertility: an audit of 70 cases in a single Centre. Afr J Urol. 2015;5:67-9.

Hassan MA, Killick SR. Effect of male age on fertility: evidence for the decline in male fertility with increasing age. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(3):1520 7.

Stanford JB, George L, White GL, Hatasaka H. Timing intercourse to achieve pregnancy: current evidence. Am Obst Gynec. 2002;100(6):1333-41.

World Health Organization. WHO manual for the standardized investigation, diagnosis and management of the infertile male. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni Press. 2000;1:102-5.

Center for disease control (CDC). Family planning method and practice in Africa: USA Agency for International Development (NO. HEW/CDC 6-74) Public Health Service Department of Health and Human Services Publication Atlanta Georgia; 1983:56-57.

Nwofor AM, Ugezu AI. The difficulties encountered in the management of male infertility in Nnewi, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2003;44(4):91-3.

Larsen U. Infertility in Sub-Sahara Africa. International Quetelet seminar, Reproductive health in the developed and developing countries: From knowledge to action at the Institute of Demography of the Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain- La-Neuve., Nov17- 20th;2004:1-22.

Abubakar AP, Yusuf TS. The profile of infertility in a teaching hospital in North West Nigeria. Sahel Med J. 2014;17(1):7-10.

Owolabi AT, Fasubaa OB, Ogunniyi SO. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Nigerian J Clin Practice. 2013;16(1):34-7.

Gopalkrishnan K, Joseph R, Sheth AR. Alteration of semen characteristics and regulatory factors in human semen with bacterial infection. Arch Androl. 1994;32:213-8.

Hooton TM. Clinical practice uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(11):1028-37.

Larsen U. Trends in infertility in Cameroon and Nigeria. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 1995;21:138 42.

Ekhaise FO, Omoregie FR. Common bacterial isolates in University of benin teaching hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. World J Med Sci. 2008;3:28 33.

Samucidine M, Baweto J, Folgosa E. Infertile women in developing countries at potentially high risk of HIV transmission. Afr J Repro Health. 1999;3:98-102.

Gerrits T. Social and cultural aspects of infertility in Mozambique. Patient Edu Counsel. 1997;31:39-48.

Otubu JA, Sagay AS, Dauda S. Hysterosalpin-geography, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in the assessment of the infertile Nigerian female. East Afr Med J. 1990;67:370-2.

Emokpae MA, Uadia PO, Omale IA, Orok TN. Male infertility and endocrinopathies in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2007;6:64 7.