Types and clinical presentation of stroke

Muhammad D. Khan, Zeeshan Chaughtai, Shaheryar Qazi, Sobaan Taj, Henna Pervaiz, Khurram Irshad, Syed Muhammad A. Bukhari, Sheikh Afraz, Muhammad T. Kamran


Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this study, authors worked on clinical presentation and types of stroke. The two main types of strokes are ischemic and haemorrhagic. Brain infarction is caused by decrease blood flow due to either narrowing of artery or complete obstruction to blood flow owing to embolism. While haemorrhage is caused by rupture of artery or aneurysms leading to accumulation of blood in the brain parenchyma.

Methods: Cross sectional study of group of patients in Nishtar hospital Multan, Pakistan who presented with variety of neurological symptoms who were subsequently diagnosed as non-traumatic stroke. All patients were subjected to a detailed history and thorough clinical examination and investigations after obtaining informed consent.

Results: Of 122 patient, 66 patients were male and 56 were female. Ischemic stroke was more common: present in 76 patients as compared to 46 patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension was present in 40.9% of ischemic stroke and 27.8% of hemorrhagic strokes. Most of the patients (67.2%) had altered sensorium at presentation followed by hemiplegia in 39.3 % of patients.

Conclusions: Prevalence of ischemic strokes is higher than that of haemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension is associated with both types of these strokes. Moreover, hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are common in early phase of stroke. Vomiting in stroke favors haemorrhagic stroke.


Diabetes mellitus, Embolism, Hemiplegia, Hypertension, Stroke

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