The application of the AERMOD model in the environmental health to identify the dispersion area of total suspended particulate from cement industry stacks

Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja, Anwar Daud, Alimuddin Hamzah Assegaf, Maming .


Background: The emission from the stacks of a cement industry produces some particles that harm the quality of the air, such as total suspended particulate (TSP). Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon.

Methods: The research methods used American Meteorological Society – Environmental Protection Agency Regulation Model or AERMOD as spatial analysis tools to show the TSP dispersion. AERMOD requires meteorological and topographical data. The meteorological data processed by AERMEDT is taken from the reanalysis of MM5 data while the topographical data is extracted from SRTM30 satellite data. The model is carried out for a year, to cover both dry and rainy seasons.

Results: The result shows that the TSP peak concentration in one hour is 314μg/m3 (in which the quality standard of TSP is 90μg/Nm3). The area of dispersion tends to head east of the stacks, including District Minasatene (Sub-district Bontoa, Kalabbirang, and Minasatene), District Bungoro (Sub-district Biringere, Sapanang, Mangilu, Bulu Tellue and Tabo-tabo) and District Labakkang (Sub-district Taraweang), Indonesia.

Conclusions: AERMOD model can show potential exposure area from cement industry. It needs serious efforts to prevent and minimize the impact to public health.



Total suspended particulate, AERMOD, Spatial study, Cement industry, Dispersion area, Health

Full Text:



Romprasert S. Asian economic community with selected macroeconomic variables for exports sustainability. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2013;3(3):602-5.

Agtrianasari, S. Is The ASEAN economic community by 2015, Worth Having? Juris Gentium Law Review. 2012;1(1).

The ASEAN Economic Community A Work in Progress. 2013, Singapore: Asian Development Bank & Institute of Southeast Asian Studies Singapore.

Wailerdsak, N. Impacts of the ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Economic Community on Labour Market and Human Resource Management in Thailand. South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economic and Law. 2013;2(2).

Tonasa PS. Profil Perusahaan PT Semen Tonasa. 2015; Available from: profile_brief.php.

Rodrigues FA. Cement Industry: Sustainability, challange and perspective. Springer-Verlag. 2010.

Marlowe I, Mansfield D. Substudy 10: Environment, Health & Safety Performance Improvement. 2002, World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

Allaban MA, Qudais HA, Impact Assessment of Ambient Air Quality by Cement Industry: A Case Study in Jordan. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2011.

Bertoldi M, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, Fattore E, Cau A, Fanelli R et al. Health Effects for The Population Living Near a Cement Plant: An Epidemiological Assessment. ELSEVIER, 2012;41:1-7.

Mishra S, Siddiqui NA. A Review on environmental and health impacts of cement manufacturing emissions. International Journal of Geology, agriculture and environmental sciences, 2014;2(3)26-31.

Assegaf AH, Jayadipraja EA. Pemodelan Dispersi CO Dari Cerobong Pabrik Semen Tonasa dengan Menggunakan Model AERMOD. in Seminar Nasional Fisika Makassar 2015. 2015. Makassar, Indonesia: Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Hasanuddin.

Jayadipraja EA. The Use of AERMOD in Modeling the Emission Dispersion of SO2 and NO2 to Identify Area Exposed to Health Risks. Public Health of Indonesia Journal. 2016.

Beychok MR. Fundamental of Stack Gas Dispersion. 2005: NewportBeach, California, USA.

U.S.EPA, AERMOD: Description of Model Formulation. 2004, US.EPA.

Stull RB. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. 2003, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht/Boston/London.

Lazaridis M. First Principle of Meteorology and Air Pollution, BJ Alloway and JT Trevors, Editors. 2011, Springer.

Vallero D. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. Vol. Fourth Edition. Elsavier. 2008.

Seangkiatiyuth K, Surapipith V, Tantrakarnapa K, Lothongkum AW. Application of the AERMOD modeling system for environmental impact assessment of NO2 emissions from a cement complex. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2011;23(6):931-40.

Limited, AQC. Air Dispersion Modeling Report for The Proposed 5000 MTPD Cement Manufacturing Facility to be Located at Bodles, st. Catherine, Jamaica. 2010.

Cimorellia AJ, Perryb SG, Venkatramc A, Weild JC, Painee RJ, Wilsonf RB, et al. AERMOD: A Dispersion Model for Industrial Source Applications. Part I: General Model Formulation and Boundary Layer Characterization. Journal of applied meteorology. 2004;44:682-93.

Agency, U.E.P., AERMOD: Revised Draft – User’s Guide for the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model – AERMOD. . Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC., 1998.

Agency UEP. Revised Draft – User’s Guide to the AERMOD Terrain Preprocessor (AERMAP). Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC. 1998.

Perrya SG, Cimorellib AJ, Painec RJ, Broded RW, Weile JC, Venkatramf A, et al., AERMOD: A Dispersion Model for Industrial Source Applications. Part II: Model Performance against 17 Field Study Databases. Journal of applied meteorology. 2004;44:694-708.

Monin AS, Obukhov AM. Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere. english translation by John Miller for Geophysics Research Directorate, AF Cambridge Research Centre, Cambridge, Massachusetts, by the American Meteorological Society). 2008.

Nugroho AW, Sofyan A. Sistem Pemodelan Kualitas Udara Terintegrasi dengan Menggunakan AERMOD, WRF-CHEM dan PYTHON. 2011, Bandung Institute of Technology: Bandung, Indonesia.

Jesse L, Lee TR, Brode RW, Worldwide Data Quality Effects on PBL Short-Range Regulatory Air Dispersion Models. Weblakes Environment Consultants Inc. 2011.

GA, Dudhia GJ, Stauffer D. A Description of the fifth generation Penn State/ NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech Note, NCAR/TN-398+STR, 1994.

Givoni B. Climate Consideration in Building and Urban Design. 1998: Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

Clarke JH. Air Flow Arround Buildings, in Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning. 1967.

Smadi BMA, Zboon KKA, Shatnawi KM, Assessment of Air Pollutants Emissions from a Cement Plant: A Case Study in Jordan. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering. 2009; 3(3).

Evans J, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Burnett R, Rainham DG, Birkett NJ et al. Estimate of Global Mortality Attributable to Particulate Air Pollution Using Satellite Imagery. Elsavier, 2013;120:33-42.

Hou L, Wang S, Dou C, Zhang X, Yu Y, Zheng Y, et al. Air Pollution Exposure And Telomere Length In Highly Exposed Subjects In Beijing, China: A Repeated-Measure Study. National Institutes of Health, 2012;48:71-7.