DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20203687

Biomarkers in migraine: a sea of something

Siddharth Joshi, Roshan Iqbal, S. Harsha, S. C. Nemichandra, Shasthara Paneyala

Abstract


Migraine is the most common headache disorder with high prevalence. Clinical features which forms basis for diagnosis are heterogenous, varying from person to person and in an individual patient from one headache to the next. In most of the migraineurs treatment is delayed, until the disease severity is high leading to significant disability and socioeconomic burden. Many patients receive various combination of prolonged therapy with no significant benefits. Identifying a biomarker for migraine might help in assessing the susceptibility, diagnosing the disease early, choosing appropriate therapeutic target and monitoring the disease course. Here in this review authors discuss most studied, promising biomarkers emerging in field of migraine. The keywords migraine, and biomarkers were used in the search engines of PubMed and Google scholar and articles identified were extensively reviewed. Genetic biomarkers ascertain susceptibility or predisposition to migraine and are valuable in diagnosis, developing novel therapeutic agents, assessing treatment response. This review briefs about most studied genetic and circulatory biomarkers of migraine. Further research into existing biomarkers with higher sample size, excluding confounding factors is necessary. Search for newer biomarkers which can be of great value in diagnosis and therapy is needed. Identifying a biomarker which is reliable, replicable, easily available and cost-effective is need of the hour in management of migraine.


Keywords


Biomarkers, Circulatory, Migraine, Neuropeptides

Full Text:

PDF

References


International programme on chemical safety, Organizzazione mondiale della sanità. Biomarkers in Risk Assessment: Validity and Validation. World health organization; 2001.

Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2163-96.

Thomsen LL, Kirchmann M, Bjornsson A, Stefansson H, Jensen RM, Fasquel AC, et al. The genetic spectrum of a population-based sample of familial hemiplegic migraine. Brain. 2007;130(2):346-56.

Chasman DI, Schürks M, Anttila V, de Vries B, Schminke U, Launer LJ, et al. Genome-wide association study reveals three susceptibility loci for common migraine in the general population. Nature Genet. 2011;43(7):695-8.

Freilinger T, Anttila V, De Vries B, Malik R, Kallela M, Terwindt GM, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies susceptibility loci for migraine without aura. Nature genetics. 2012;44(7):777-82.

Schürks M, Rist PM, Kurth T. MTHFR 677C> T and ACE D/I polymorphisms in migraine: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Headache: J Head Face Pain. 2010;50(4):588-99.

Kowalska M, Kapelusiak-Pielok M, Grzelak T, Wypasek E, Kozubski W, Dorszewska J. The new* G29A and G1222A of HCRTR1, 5-HTTLPR of SLC6A4 polymorphisms and hypocretin-1, serotonin concentrations in migraine patients. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018;11:191.

Kara I, Ozkok E, Aydin M, Orhan N, Cetinkaya Y, Gencer M, Kilic G, Tireli H. Combined effects of ACE and MMP-3 polymorphisms on migraine development. Cephalalgia. 2007;27(3):235-43.

Rainero I, Grimaldi LM, Salani G, Valfrè W, Savi L, Rivoiro C, et al. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms in patients with migraine. Neuroscience letters. 2002;317(2):111-3.

Ghosh J, Joshi G, Pradhan S, Mittal B. Potential role of aromatase over estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in migraine susceptibility: a case control study from North India. PloS One. 2012;7(4):e34828.

Tang Y, Liu S, Shu H, Xing Y, Tao F. AMPA receptor GluA1 Ser831 phosphorylation is critical for nitroglycerin-induced migraine-like pain. Neuropharmacology. 2018;133:462-9.

Han D. Association of serum levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide and cytokines during migraine attacks. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2019;22(3):277.

Edvinsson L, Goadsby PJ. Neuropeptides in migraine and cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 1994;14(5):320-7.

Ferrari MD, Saxena PR. On serotonin and migraine: a clinical and pharmacological review. Cephalalgia. 1993;13(3):151-65.

Buzzi MG, Bonamini M, Moskowitz MA. Neurogenic model of migraine. Cephalalgia. 1995;15(4):277-80.

Duarte H, Teixeira AL, Rocha NP, Domingues RB. Increased serum levels of adiponectin in migraine. J Neurol Sci. 2014;342(1-2):186-8.

Chai NC, Gelaye B, Tietjen GE, Dash PD, Gower BA, White LW, et al. Ictal adipokines are associated with pain severity and treatment response in episodic migraine. Neurol. 2015;84(14):1409-18.

Guzik TJ, Mangalat D, Korbut R. Adipocytokines novel link between inflammation. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;4:505-28.

Boćkowski L, Sobaniec W, Żelazowska-Rutkowska B. Proinflammatory plasma cytokines in children with migraine. Pediatric Neurol. 2009;41(1):17-21.

Perini F, D'Andrea G, Galloni E, Pignatelli F, Billo G, Alba S, et al. Plasma cytokine levels in migraineurs and controls. Headache: J Head Face Pain. 2005;45(7):926-31.

Hashikawa-Hobara N, Hashikawa N, Yutani C, Zamami Y, Jin X, Takatori S, et al. The Akt-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway contributes to nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Pharmacol Exp Therap. 2011;338(2):694-700.

Yuasa N, Nagata E, Fujii N, Ito M, Tsukamoto H, Takizawa S. Serum apolipoprotein E may be a novel biomarker of migraine. PloS One. 2018;13(1):e0190620

Ferrari MD, Odink J, Tapparelli C, Van Kempen GM. Pennings EJ, Bruyn GW. Serotonin metabolism in migraine. Neurol. 1989;39:1239-42.

Masruha MR, de Souza Vieira DS, Minett TS, Cipolla-Neto J, Zukerman E, Vilanova LC, Peres MF. Low urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin concentrations in acute migraine. J Headache Pain. 2008;9(4):221-4.

Masruha MR, Lin J, de Souza Vieira DS, Minett TS, Cipolla‐Neto J, Zukerman E, et al. Urinary 6‐sulphatoxymelatonin levels are depressed in chronic migraine and several comorbidities. Headache: J Head Face Pain. 2010;50(3):413-9.

Durham PL, Vause CV, Derosier F, McDonald S, Cady R, Martin V. Changes in salivary prostaglandin levels during menstrual migraine with associated dysmenorrhea. Headache: J Head Face Pain. 2010;50(5):844-51.