DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20204559

Prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia: trends in incidence, morphological and epidemiological characteristics

Bandar M. Alshehri

Abstract


Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide. This paper aims to determine the incidence of the prostate cancer cases in Saudi Arabia between 1994 and 2016.

Methods: In this study, the statistics of prostate cancer cases recorded in reports of the Saudi cancer registry for the period from 1994 to 2016 are used. The data and numbers of these reports were assessed to review the full picture during the study period. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were calculated for these purposes.

Results: In total, 89,880 cancer cases were recorded for the period between 1994 and 2016. The number of prostate cancer cases out of this total is 5,332. The age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence increased from 4.1 in 1994 to 6.3 in 2016. A variation in the incidence of prostate cancer by region was noticed, and a direct relationship was identified between prostate cancer rates and the ages of those with prostate cancer, with the majority of people with prostate cancer being over 50 years.

Conclusions: The overall appearance of prostate cancer is moving upwards. Differences in the incidence rates between men who live in different Saudi regions suggest that environment, behaviour and genetic factors may be a cause. Exploring these factors is necessary to take advantage of them while drawing up the prevention plans.


Keywords


Cancer epidemiology, Cancer prevention, Cancer control, Prostate tumour, Renal tumour

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ferlay J, Colombet M, Soerjomataram I, Mathers C, Parkin DM, Pineros M et al. Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. Int J Cancer. 2019;144(8):1941-53.

Center MM, Jemal A, Lortet-Tieulent J, Ward E, Ferlay J, Brawley O et al. International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur Urol. 2012;61(6):1079-92.

Bray F, Jemal A, Grey N, Ferlay J, Forman D. Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008–2030): a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(8):790-801.

Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394-424.

Alghamidi IG, Hussain, II, Alghamdi MS, El-Sheemy MA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2014;7(1):18-26.

Alshehri B. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of thyroid cancer in the saudi population (2001-2013). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(5):1445-51.

Osman E, Gomha MA, Harb A, Aldayel A, Aloraifi I, Almousa R et al. An early-detection programme for prostate cancer in Saudi men: A call from a tertiary-care centre in the Eastern province. Arab J Urol. 2014;12(3):187-91.

Cook BC. Prostate cancer diagnostics: now and in the future. MLO Med Lab Obs. 2013;45(4):20-2.

Newcomer LM, Stanford JL, Blumenstein BA, Brawer MK. Temporal trends in rates of prostate cancer: declining incidence of advanced stage disease, 1974 to 1994. J Urol. 1997;158(4):1427-30.

Moore AL, Dimitropoulou P, Lane A, Powell PH, Greenberg DC, Brown CH et al. Population-based prostate-specific antigen testing in the UK leads to a stage migration of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2009;104(11):1592-8.

Rundle A, Neckerman KM, Sheehan D, Jankowski M, Kryvenko ON, Tang D et al. A prospective study of socioeconomic status, prostate cancer screening and incidence among men at high risk for prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24(2):297-303.

Clegg LX, Reichman ME, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Singh GK, Lin YD et al. Impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis: selected findings from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20(4):417-35.

Routh JC, Leibovich BC. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: epidemiological trends, screening, diagnosis, and surgical management of localized disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80(7):899-907.

Stangelberger A, Waldert M, Djavan B. Prostate cancer in elderly men. Rev Urol. 2008;10(2):111-9.

Sharp JW, Blum D, Aviv L. Elderly men with cancer: social work interventions in prostate cancer. Soc Work Health Care. 1993;19(1):91-107.

Konety BR, Sharp VJ, Raut H, Williams RD. Screening and management of prostate cancer in elderly men: the Iowa Prostate Cancer Consensus. Urol. 2008;71(3):511-4.

Roussel B, Ouellet GM, Mohile SG, Dale W. Prostate Cancer in Elderly Men: Screening, Active Surveillance, and Definitive Therapy. Clin Geriatr Med. 2015;31(4):615-29.

Heinzer H, Steuber T. Prostate cancer in the elderly. Urol Oncol. 2009;27(6):668-72.

Cassell A, Yunusa B, Jalloh M, Mbodji MM, Diallo A, Ndoye M et al. A Review of Localized Prostate Cancer: An African Perspective. World J Oncol. 2019;10(4-5):162-8.

Dall'Era MA, Cooperberg MR, Chan JM, Davies BJ, Albertsen PC, Klotz LH, et al. Active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer: review of the current literature. Cancer. 2008;112(8):1650-9.

Cooperberg MR, Cowan JE, Hilton JF, Reese AC, Zaid HB, Porten SP, et al. Outcomes of active surveillance for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(2):228-34.

Aminsharifi A, Simon R, Polascik TJ, Robertson CN, Sudan DL, Collins BH et al. Evaluation and active treatment versus active surveillance of localized prostate cancer in renal transplant patients in the era of low and very low risk prostate cancer. J Urol. 2019;202(3):469-74.

Humphrey PA. Histopathology of prostate cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017;7(10).

Liu AY, True LD. Characterization of prostate cell types by CD cell surface molecules. Am J Pathol. 2002;160(1):37-43.

Chen N, Zhou Q. The evolving Gleason grading system. Chin J Cancer Res. 2016;28(1):58-64.