DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20205826

The effect of vitamin D3 supplements on the 25(OH)D levels in the II and III trimester of pregnant women in Sleman, Indonesia: randomized controlled trial

Amalina T. Susilani, Hertanto W. Subagio, Noor Pramono, Martha I. Kartasurya

Abstract


Background: Pregnant women are among the groups at high risk of vitamin D3 deficiency due to the increased need for micro and macro nutrients during pregnancy. Vitamin D3 deficiency is associated with pregnancy complications, namely preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and babies born small according to their gestational age.

Methods: The study involved a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Subjects selected include 80 pregnant women in second trimester. Data were collected in June 2020 to September 2020. The respondents were then randomly divided into 2 groups, comprising 40 each, where the first received 400 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 weeks, and the second served as a control. Furthermore, 25 (OH) D were measured by using the ELISA method.

Results: The mean value of the 25(OH)D levels after D3 supplementation and statistically showed a significant difference with a significance value of p<0.05 (0.01), compared to the control group.  Furthermore, the mean value of the 25(OH)D levels in the control group actually decreased by 2.7 ng/ml which was statistically significant with a p value of 0.00, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the mean value of the 25(OH)D levels in the control group actually decreased by 2.7 ng/ml which was statistically significant with a p value of 0.00.

Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplement of 400 IU per day can increase the levels of 25(OH)D in the II and III trimester of pregnant women in antenatal care (ANC), Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta.


Keywords


II and III trimester pregnant women, 25(OH)D levels, Vitamin D3 supplement

Full Text:

PDF

References


Singh G, Singh G, Brar H, Malik S. Vitamin D levels in preterm and term neonates at birth. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2017;4(1):48-52.

Aji AS, Erwinda E, Yusrawati Y, Malik SG, Lipoeto NI. Vitamin D deficiency status and its related risk factors during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant Minangkabau women, Indonesia. BMC Pregnanc Childbirth. 2019;19(1):1-10.

WHO. Guideline: Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2012. 2012;1-32.

Olmos-Ortiz A, Avila E, Durand-Carbajal M, Díaz L. Regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis and activity: Focus on gestational vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nutrients. 2015;7(1):443-80.

Singh D, Hariharan D, Bhaumik D. Role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of preterm labour. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2015;4(1):1.

Nurbazlin M, Chee WSS, Rokiah P, Tan ATB, Chew YY, Nusaibah ARS, et al. Effects of sun exposure on 25(OH) vitamin D concentration in urban and rural women in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(3):391-9.

Woon FC, Chin YS, Ismail IH, Batterham M, Latiff AHA, Gan WY, et al. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and its associated factors among third trimester Malaysian pregnant women. PLoS One. 2019;14(6):1-12.

Pratumvinit B, Wongkrajang P, Wataganara T, Hanyongyuth S, Nimmannit A, Chatsiricharoenkul S, et al. Maternal vitamin d status and its related factors in pregnant women in Bangkok, Thailand. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):1-14.

Judistiani RTD, Nirmala SA, Rahmawati M, Ghrahani R, Natalia YA, Sugianli AK, et al. Optimizing ultraviolet B radiation exposure to prevent vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in the tropical zone: Report from cohort study on vitamin D status and its impact during pregnancy in Indonesia. BMC Pregnanc Childbirth. 2019;19(1):1-9.

Aji AS, Yerizel E, Desmawati, Lipoeto NI. The association between lifestyle and maternal vitamin D during pregnancy in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(6):1286-93.

Sabet Z, Ghazi AA, Tohidi M, Oladi B. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant Iranian women: Effects on maternal and neonatal Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone status. Acta Endocrinologica. 2012;8(1):59-66.

Al-Musharaf S, Fouda MA, Turkestani IZ, Al-Ajlan A, Sabico S, Alnaami AM, et al. Vitamin D deficiency prevalence and predictors in early pregnancy among Arab women. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):1-12.

WHO. Recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015:1-10.