DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20205027

Evaluation of haematological findings in cases of pancytopenia

Roshny Jacob, Deepthi M. L. Raj

Abstract


Background: Pancytopenia is a clinical condition which poses diagnostic challenge to the haematologist. The aetiology of pancytopenia is varied and depends on many factors. A bone marrow study is highly indicated in cases of pancytopenia and it provides information regarding the underlying disease process. This study was done to learn the causes of pancytopenia and to document how each case was evaluated and followed up.

Methods: The present study is a descriptive retrospective one year study on bone marrow samples received in the laboratory. Bone marrow samples included aspirate smears, imprint and trephine and their findings were correlated to arrive at a final diagnosis.

Results: Out of the total 28 patients with pancytopenia, 35.71% were from the age group between 61 and 80 years. A male female ratio of 1.5:1 was observed. Most common presenting complaint documented was easy fatiguability. Anisocytosis with macrocytes and ovalocytes were the most common peripheral smear finding. In current study, a cellular marrow was described in 24 (85.71%) cases and hypocellularity in two (7.14%) cases. Final diagnosis was evident in 16 cases, in which the most common cause was acute leukaemia (14.28% each) followed by lymphoma infiltration and myelodysplastic syndromes in 3 cases (10.71%).

Conclusions: Bone marrow study helps to arrive at a diagnosis of pancytopenia. But proper technique for sampling, good clinical workup and history taking and clinico haematological correlation is mandatory for the proper diagnosis of a pancytopenia case.


Keywords


Pancytopenia, Megaloblastoid marrow, Bone marrow study, Dyserythropoesis

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