DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20205845

Microbiological surveillance of operation theatre’s and intensive care units in a tertiary care hospital in NCR region, New Delhi

Soumya Singh, Rohit Kumar, Mrinmoy Sarma

Abstract


Background: Harbouring of potential pathogens in operation theatres (OTs) and intensive care units (ICUs) of hospital is a major cause of patient’s morbidity and mortality. Environmental monitoring by the microbiological testing of surfaces and equipments is useful to detect changing trends of types and counts of microbial flora. High level of microbial contamination indicates the needs for periodic surveillance aimed at early detection of bacterial contamination levels and prevention of hospital acquired infections.

Methods: During a period of 6 months from January 2019 to June 2019, Air sampling from Operation theaters and Intensive care units were done by settle plate method. Swabs were taken from different sites and equipments and bacterial species were isolated and identified from them.

Results: A total of 1410 samples were collected from various sites of Operation theaters and Intensive care units over a period of 6 months in which 960 were surface samples and 450 were air samples. Out of 960 surface samples, 95(9.89%) and out of 450 air samples, 90 (20%) were bacterial positive. Isolated organism was divided into normal flora (CONS, Micrococci), contaminant (bacillus species) and pathogenic organism e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp etc. Out of those 30 (16.20%) CONS, 50 (27.02%) Micrococci, 75 (40.50%) Bacillus spp, 16 (8.6%) Staphylococcus aureus, 1(0.54%) Acinetobacter spp, 2 (1.08%) Pseudomonas spp, 4 (2.16%) Klebsiella, 7 (3.78%) Escherichia coli were isolated.

Conclusions: Strengthening surveillance and laboratory capacity will surely enhance infection prevention and control. Routine sampling is strongly recommended for increasing awareness to identify and control all possible sources and types of infections.


Keywords


Microbiological, Operation theater, Surgical site infection, Surveillance

Full Text:

PDF

References


Zerr DM, Garrison MM, Allpress AL, Heath J, Christakis DA. Infection control policies and hospital-associated infections among surgical patients: Variability and associations in a multicenter pediatric setting. Pediatrics. 2005;115:e387–92.

Ram J, Kaushik S, Brar GS, Taneja N, and Gupta A. Prevention of postoperative infections in ophthalmic surgery. Ind J Ophthalmol. 2001;49:59–69.

Desai SN, Kikani KM, Mehta SJ. Microbiological surveillance of operation theaters and intensive care units of teaching hospital in Surendranagar, Gujarat. Gujarat Med J. 2012;67:95–7.

Genet C, Kibru G, Tsegaye W. Indoor air bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms and surgical wards at Jimma University specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop JHealth Sci. 2011;21:9–17.

Dharan S, Pittet D. Environmental controls in operating theatres. J Hos Infec. 2002;51(2):79-84.

Bhalla A, Drin, D, Donskey CJ, Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization in associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on skin of hospitalized patients BMC. Infect Dis. 2007;7:108-23.

Bonten MJM, Hayden MK, Nathan C, Epidemiology of colonization of patient and environment with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet. 1996;348:1615-9.

Boyce JM, Potter-Byno, Chenevert C, King T, Environmental contamination due to methicillin resistant S. aureus; possible infection control implication, Infect Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1997;18:622-7.

Javed I, Hafeez R, Zubair M, Anwar M, Tayyib M, Husnain S. Microbiological surveillance of operation theatres and ICUs of a teaching hospital, Lahore. Biomedica. 2008;24:99-102.

Chacko I, Jose S, Isa A, Bhat KG. Survival of Nosocomial Bacteria in Hospital Fabrics. Ind J Med Microb. 2003;21:291.

Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP. Mackie and MC Cartney Practical Medical microbiology. 14th ed. India. Elsevier; 2007:131-148.

World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia. (‎2002)‎. Guidelines on prevention and control of hospital associated infections. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/205187. Accessed March 2019.

Kallel H, Bahoul M, Ksibi H, Dammak H, Chelly H, Hamida CB, et al. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infection in a Tunisian hospital. J Hosp Infect. 2005;59:343–7.

Hanberger H, Arman D, Gill H, Jindrak V, Kalenic S, and Kurcz A, et al. Surveillance of microbial resistance in European Intensive care Units: A first report from the- ICU program for improved infection control. Available at: http://liu.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:15024/FULLTEXT01.pdf. Accessed March 2019.

Sharma D, Nagarajan S. A study of cleaning/ disinfecting procedures in a primary tertiary care hospital, Delhi. Heal Popu Perspect Iss. 2001;24(4):189-97.

Kiranmai S, Madhvi K. Microbiological surveillance of operation theatres, intensive care units and labour room of a teaching hospital in Telangana, India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;4(12):5256-60.

Anjali K. Environmental microbiological surveillance of operation theatres in a tertiary care hospital. Int J Cur Res. 2015;7(03):13977-80.

Qudiesat K, Abu-Elteen K, Elkarmi A, Hamad M, Abussaud M. Assessment of airborne pathogens in healthcare settings. Af J Microbiol Res. 2009;3(2):66-76.

Streifel AJ. Design and Maintenance of Hospital Ventilation Systems and the Prevention of Airborne Nosocomial Infections. In: Mayhall CG (ed) Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. 1999:1211-21.