DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20210997

Etiology and chemical composition of gall stone disease: a prospective observational study from the developing world

Syed Mushtaq Ahmed Shah, Tahir Saleem Khan, Ravi Kumar, Tajddin Wani, Adil Shadab Indrabi

Abstract


Background: Aim of the study was to assess the etiology and determine the chemical composition of gallstones in our population.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted at GMC Srinagar from 2018 to 2020. One hundred patients having gall stone disease were enrolled into the study and after cholecystectomy was performed the stones chemical composition was analyzed by fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The data was collated and analysed.

Results: 54 patients had mixed stones with chemical composition of cholesterol, calcium carbonate and calcium bilirubinate; 39 had cholesterol stones and 7 patients had pigmented stone with chemical composition of cholesterol, calcium carbonate and calcium bilirubinate.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that cholesterol, either singularly or in combination with calcium carbonate or bilirubin is a common component of gall stones in our population.


Keywords


Gallstone, FTIR, Cholesterol, Bilirubinate, Chemical

Full Text:

PDF

References


Harding AJ. Gallstones: Causes and Treatments. William Heinemann Medical Books, London. 1964;42-56.

Kern F. Epidemiology and natural history of gallstones. Semin Liver Dis. 1983;3:87-96.

Sun H, Tang H, Jiang S, Zeng L, Chen EQ, Zhou TY, Wang YJ. Gender and metabolic differences of gallstone diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:1886-91.

Doggrell SA. New targets in and potential treatments for cholesterol gallstone disease. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006;7:344-8.

Goldacre MJ, Duncan ME, Griffith M, Davidson M. Trends in mortality from appendicitis and from gallstone disease in English populations, 1979-2006: study of multiple-cause coding of deaths. Postgrad Med J. 2011;87:245-50.

Apstein MD, Carey MC. Biliary tract stones and associated diseases. In: Stein JH, editor. Internal medicine, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Yearbook. 1993.

Carey MC. Formation of cholesterol gallstones: the new paradigms. In: Paumgartner G, Stiehl A, Gerok W, editors. Trends in bile acid research. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 1988;259-81.

Cahalane MJ, Neubrand MW, Carey MC. Physical-chemical pathogenesis of pigment gallstones. Semin Liver Dis. 1988;8:317-28.

Carey MC. Pathogenesis of gallstones. RecentiProg Med. 1992;83:379-91.

Bartoli E, Capron JP. Epidemiology and natural history of cholelithiasis. Rev Prat. 2000;50:2112-6.

Maki T. Cholelithiasis in the Japanese. Arch Surg. 1961;82:599-612.

Park HS, Kim MH, Lee SK, Seo DW, Nam SW, Kim YS, et al. A study on the dietary factors in the formation of biliary stones. Korean J Gastroenterol. 1997;29:805-14.

Gupta AM, Ramteke S, Kanwar KS, Soni P. Study of morphological spectrum of gallstone and bacteriology of bile in cholelithiasis. Int Surg J. 2017;4:177-80.

Singh KK, Singh DP, Chandra A, Alam M, Agrawal P. Study of associationship between gall stone composition and bacteriological spectrum in chronic calculouscholecystitis. Int Surg J. 2019;6(8):2741-4.

Weerakoon HTW, Ranasinghe JGS, Navaratna A, Sivakanesan R, Galketiya KB and Rosairo S. Can the type of gallstones be predicted with known possible risk factors? a comparison between mixed cholesterol and black pigment stones. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:88.

Angwafo III FF, Takongmo S, Griffith D. Determination of chemical composition of gall bladder stones: Basis for treatment strategies in patients from Yaounde, Cameroon. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10(2):303-5.

Rhodes M, Venables CW. Symptomatic gallstones–a disease of non-smokers? Digestion. 1991;49:221-6.

Okamoto M, Yamagata Z, Takeda Y, Yoda Y, Kobayashi K, Fujino MA. The relationship between gallbladder disease and smoking and drinking habits in middle-aged Japanese. J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:455-62.

Kono S, Eguchi H, Honjo S, Todoroki I, Oda T, Shinchi K, Ogawa S, Nakagawa K. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and gallstone risk in Japanese men. Digestion. 2002;65:177-83.

Kono S, Shinchi K, Todoroki I, Honjo S, Sakurai Y, Wakabayashi K, et al. Gallstone disease among Japanese men in relation to obesity, glucose intolerance, exercise, alcohol use, and smoking. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1995;30:372-6.

Shaffer EA. Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;20:981-96.

Liu T, Wang W, Ji Y. Association between different combination of measures for obesity and new-onset gallstone disease. PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0196457.

Pagliarulo M, Fornari F, Fraquelli M, Zoli M, Giangregorio F, Grigolon A, Peracchi M, Conte D. Gallstone disease and related risk factors in a large cohort of diabetic patients. Dig Liver Dis. 2004;36:130-4.

Pacchioni M, Nicoletti C, Caminiti M, Calori G, Curci V, Camisasca R, Pontiroli AE. Association of obesity and type II diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for gallstones. Dig Dis Sci. 2000;45:2002-6.

Richardson WS, Carter KM, Helm B, Garcia LA, Chambers RB, Keats BJ. Risk factors for gallstone disease in the laparoscopic era. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(3):450-2.

Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL. The relationship between reproductive history and cholecystectomy in older women. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43(7):687-92.

Bagaudinov KG, Saidov SS, Garilevich BA, Zubkov AD, Abdulaev RA, Ovakimian GS. [Improvement of extracorporeal shockwave cholelithotripsy in the comprehensive treatment of cholelithiasis]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2007;85:56-9.

Carey MC. Formation of cholesterol gallstones: the new paradigms. In: Paumgartner G, Stiehl A, Gerok W, editors. Trends in bile acid research. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 1988;259-81.

Apstein MD, Carey MC. Biliary tract stones and associated diseases. In: Stein JH, editor. Internal medicine, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Yearbook. 1993.

Mohan CP, Kabalimurthy J, Jayavarmaa R. A Clinical study on Cholelithiasis and its Management. JMSCR. 2018;6(10):766-70.

Suo T, Peng P, Feng M. Fixed-point and stratified analysis of the fine structure and composition of five gallstones with fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) specular reflection spectroscopy. Microsc Res Tech. 2012;75(3):294-9.

Ha BJ, Park S. Classification of gallstones using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and photography. Biomat Res. 2018;22:18.