DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20212260

Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and outcome of SARS-COV-2 cases in Uttar Pradesh: descriptive analysis

Amresh Kumar Singh, Indra Prasad Adhikari, Vivek Gaur

Abstract


Corona virus is one of the major pathogens that primarily target the human respiratory system. Previous outbreaks of corona viruses include the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV which have been previously characterized as agents that are a great public health threat. In late December 2019, a cluster of patients was admitted to hospitals with an initial diagnosis of pneumonia of an unknown etiology. These patients were epidemiologically linked to a sea food and wet animal wholesale market in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. In India on 30th January 2020 first positive case in a student from Kerala of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, who was studying in Wuhan University and had travelled to India, tested positive by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As of 15th March 2021, in India total confirmed cases 94,61,901 recovery 88,47,600 death 1,37,582 have been reported from 32 states/union territories in U.P. state has 6,05,290 confirmed cases, resulting in 8,746 deaths and 595,637 recoveries. The case fatality rate in Uttar Pradesh was stands at 1.4%. Among different districts of U.P., the Lucknow was listed as first with 82,213 cases, 80,740 recovered and 1,190 deaths. Next states were Kanpur; 33,111 cases, and 839 deaths, Prayagraj 29,436 cases, and 409 deaths, Meerut; 22477 cases, and 442 deaths, Ghaziabad 26902 cases, 26694 recovered, 102 death and Gorakhpur 21510 confirmed case 21115 recovered and 366 deaths till 15th March 2021.


Keywords


SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Epidemiology, RT-PCR, HRCT, ELISA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MUG, Khan K. Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel. J Travel Med. 2020;27(2):taaa008.

Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan China: the mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):401-2.

Zhao S, Lin Q, Ran J, Musa SS, Yang G, Wang W. Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: a data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;92:214-7.

Zhang HW, Yu J, Xu HJ, Lei Y, Pu ZH, Dai WC, et al. Corona Virus International Public Health Emergencies: Implications for Radiology Management. Acad Radio. 2020;27( 4):463-7.

Singh AK, Pandey J, Adhikari IP, Gaur V, Kumar A, Prakash S. et al. Assessment of Severity and Outcome of COVID-19 Cases by Haematological and Biochemical Markers at Tertiary Care Centre in India. J of Adv in Med and Med Res. 2020;32(23):196-07.

Ministry of health and family welfare. Govt. of India. https://main.mohfw.gov.in/E-Citizen-and- Tender/csma/maharashtra. Accessed on 23 March 2021.

Kodge BG. A review on current status of COVID19 cases in Maharashtra state of India using GIS: a case study. Spatial Information Res. 2020;1-7.

Wang W, Tang J, and Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):441-7.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-6.

Mo P, Xing Y, Xiao Y, Deng L, Zhao Q, Wang H. et al. Clinical characteristics of refractory COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020;ciaa270.

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, Al-Rabeeah FA, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Barrak A. et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. The Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(9):752-61.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J. et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-9.

Sahin A, Erdogan A, Agaoglu PM, Dineri Y, Cakirci A, Senel M. et al. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Review of the Current Literature. EJMO. 2020;4(1):1-7,

Turner AJ, Hiscox JA, Hooper NM. ACE2: from vasopeptidase to SARS virus receptor. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25(6):291-04.

Wang X, Ding YQ. From SARS to COVID-19: pathogens, receptor, pathogenesis and principles of the treatment. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2020;49(6):647-52.

Fantini J, Scala CD, Chahinian H, Yahi N. Structural and molecular modeling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Int. J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;(105960):55-05.

Qiu Y, Zhao YB, Wang Q, Li JY, Zhou ZJ, Liao CH. et al. Predicting the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) utilizing capability as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. Microbes Infect. 2020;22(4–5):221-5.

South AM, Tomlinson L, Edmonston D, Hiremath S, Sparks MA. Controversies of renin–angiotensin system inhibition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020;16(6):305-7.

Sun P, Lu X, Xu C, Wang Y, Sun W, Xi J. et al. CD-sACE2 inclusion compounds: an effective treatment for corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Med Virol. 2020;92(10):1721-3.

South AM, Diz D, Chappell MC. COVID-19, ACE2 and the cardiovascular consequences. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2020;318(5):1084-90.

South AM, Tomlinson L, Edmonston D, Hiremath S, Sparks MA. Controversies of renin–angiotensin system inhibition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020;16(6):305-7.

de Haan CA, Kuo L, Masters PS, Vennema H, Rottier PJ. Coronavirus particle assembly: primary structure requirements of the membrane protein. J Virol. 1998;72(8):6838-50.

Masters SP. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Advances in virus research. 2006;(66):193-92.

Lalchhandama K. The chronicles of coronaviruses: the electron microscope, the doughnut, and the spike. Science Vision. 2020;20(2):78-92.

Neuman BW, Kiss G, Kunding AH, Bhella D, Baksh MF, Connelly S et al. A structural analysis of M protein in coronavirus assembly and morphology. Journal of Structural Biology. 2011;174(1):11-22.

Woo PCY, Huang Y, Lau SKP, Yuen KY. Coronavirus genomics and bioinformatics analysis. Viruses. 2010;2(8):1804-20.

Nieto-Torres JL, DeDiego ML, Verdiá-Báguena C, Jimenez-Guardeño JM, Regla-Nava JA, Fernandez-Delgado R. et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10(5):10040-77.

Chang CK, Sue SC, Yu TH, Hsieh CM, Tsai CK, Chiang YC et al. Modular organization of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. J Biomed Sci. 2006;13(1):59-72.

Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19. J Pharm Anal. 2020;10(2):102-08.

Heid CA, Stevens J, Livak KJ, Williams PM. Real time quantitative PCR. Genome Res. 1996:6(10):986-94.

Stephensen CB, Casebolt DB, Gangopadhyay NN. Phylogenetic analysis of a highly conserved region of the polymerase gene from 11 coronaviruses and development of a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay. Virus Res.1999;60(2):181-09.

Chu DKW, Pan Y, Cheng SMS, Hui KPY, Krishnan P, Liu Y et al. Molecular diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing an outbreak of pneumonia. Clin Chem. 2020;66(4):549-55.

Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P, Mi D, Ren L et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):1620-11.

Che XY, Qiu LW, Liao ZY, Wang YD, Wen K, Pan YX et al. Antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and human coronaviruses 229E and OC43. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(12):2033-7.

Udugama B, Kadhiresan P, Kozlowski HN, Malekjahani A, Osborne M, Li VYC et al. Diagnosing COVID-19: The Disease and Tools for Detection ACS Nano. 2020;14(4):3822-35.

Porte L, Legarraga P, Vollrath V, Aguilera X, Munita JM, Araos R et al. Evaluation of a novel antigen-based rapid detection test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;99(3):28-33.

Lerner KL. SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Pandemic Case Study Resources and Primary Source Reader. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Pandemic Case Study Resources. https://scholar.harvard.edu/files /kleelerner/files/20200417johnshopkinsbiosecurityglobalprogress_on_covid19serologybased_testing.pdf. Accessed on 19th March, 2021.

Jiang F, Deng L, Zhang L, Cai Y, Cheung CW, Xia Z et al. Review of the Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(5):1545-49.

Long C, Xu H, Shen Q, Zhang X, Fan B, Wang C et al. Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT Eur J Radiol. 2020;126(10):8961.

Alpdagtas S, Ilhan E, Uysal E, Sengor M, Ustundag C.B, Gunduz O.et al. Evaluation of current diagnostic methods for COVID-19. APL Bioengineering. 2020;4(4):0415-06.

de Eguilaz MR, Cumba LR, and Forster RJ. Electrochem. Commun. 2020;121392.

Sheikhzadeh E, Eissa S,Ismail A,Zourob M. Diagnostic techniques for COVID-19 and new developments. Talanta. 2020;220:121392.

Borse V, Konwar AN, Buragohain P. Oral cancer diagnosis and perspectives in India. Sensors International. 2020;(1):1000-46.

Infected: A World in Peril, Is There a Way Out?. https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/06/02/infected-world-in-peril-is-there-way-out-event-7346. Accessed on March 23, 2021.

Bradley M. The Essential Guide to the Wuhan Virus (Symptoms, Transmission and Prevention). Corona Virus ijrr jour. 2020;4(1):1-7.

Ministry of Health and Welfare, Government of India. COVID-19 India. https://www.mohfw.gov. in/. Accessed on March 23, 2020.

Sanyal A. India Suspends All Tourist Visas Till April 15 Over Coronavirus: 10 Facts. NDTV.com. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/coronavirus-impact-visas-to-india-suspended-till-april-15-2193382. Accessed 12 March, 2020.

Omer SB, Malani P, Del Rio C. The COVID-19 Pandemic in the US: A Clinical Update. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1767-68.

Bherwani H, Gupta A, Anjum S, Anshul A, Kumar R. Exploring dependence of COVID-19 on environmental factors and spread prediction in India. npj Clim Atmos Sci. 2020;38(3).

COVID: Case fatality rate at 1.42% in UP, less than national average. https://timesofindia. indiatimes.com/videos/city/lucknow/covid-case-fatality-rate-at-1-42-in-up-less-than-national-average/videoshow/78079563.cms. Accessed on 30th March, 2021.

The charming hustle bustle of Kanpur. https://ramblinginthecity.com/tag/kanpur/. Accessed on March 23, 2021.

District Prayagraj, Government of Uttar Pradesh, the City of Kumbh, India. https://prayagraj.nic.in/covid-19/. Accessed on 5 April 2020.

Yadav HR. Village Development Planning. Concept Publishing Company Private Limited. 2009;9-13.

National Capital Region-Constituent Areas. NCRPB. http://ncrpb.nic.in/districts.html. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Highest single day Covid-19 cases in Meerut, 2 die in Agra. https://timesofindia.indiatimes. com/city/agra/highest-single-day-covid-19-cases-in-meerut-2-die-in-agra/articleshow/76393140.cms. Accessed on 23rd March, 2021.

COVID-19: Situation grim in UP’s Gorakhpur. http://www.uniindia.com/covid-19-situation-grim-in-up-s Gorakhpur/north/ news/ 2082248.html. Accessed on 23rd March, 2020.

Second COVID-19 mutant found in UK; even more infectious than previous strain. https://www.businesstoday.in/coronavirus/second-COVID-19-mutant-found-in-uk-even-more-infectious-than-previous-strain/story/425839.html. Accessed on 23rd March, 2021.

New coronavirus strain: Spain, Sweden and Canada latest countries to report cases of UK variant. https://scroll.in/latest/982418/new-coronavirus-strain-spain-sweden-and-canada-latest-countries-to-report-cases-of-uk-variant. Accessed on 27th December, 2020.

Brazil coronavirus variant: what is it and why is it a concern? An expert explains. https://theconversation.com/brazil-coronavirus-variant-what-is-it-and-why-is-it-a-concern-an-expert-explains-156234. Accessed on 23rd March, 2021.

South Africa Covid-19 Strain: What We Know About the New Variant. https://www.wsj. com/ articles/the-new-covid-19-strain-in-south-africa-what-we-know-11609971229. Accessed on 30th March, 2021.

One year of lockdown live updates: Second wave grips India. https://www. businesstoday. in/current/ economy-politics/one-year-of-lockdown-covid-19-coronavirus-cases-india-vaccine/story/434583. html. Accessed on 23rd March, 2020.